【卢军宏太平绅士心理学系列讲座五】如何有效运用心理折中法 5. How to use the eclectic approach effectively 

如何有效运用心理折中法

【卢军宏太平绅士心理学系列讲座五】

(卢军宏太平绅士:意大利锡耶纳大学荣誉客座教授、英国西苏格兰大学佛学与哲学讲师、澳洲心理学专家高级文凭、澳大利亚高级心理辅导师、世界著名心灵导师)

心理学家心理医生除了要严格的遵守某一件特定的理论,而且要学会在面临各种不同情况和案例中寻找一个更直接、更能解决问题的方法,这在心理学上称为折中法(Eclectic approach)。

心理医生可以遵照心理学的一些特定理论来开导病人,但是有时候患者会从不同侧面折射出他们的思维导向,比方说忧郁症患者往往同时患有恐慌症,而有时候有恐惧症的人同时又有自闭症,如果单单根据某一个客观报告和评估对他进行某一项治疗,不一定有效,所以对忧郁症的病人和对恐惧症的病人必须要有不同的方法医治。

尤其很多心理医生对治疗效果没有自己真实的感应和信心,所以对病人难以产生一种引导性的正确评估;对很多病人的心理困扰,难以直接取得治愈这些病的有效的证明。所以对心理医生来讲,本来自己就对治疗方面存在非常大的心理差距,所以折中法就是一边听病人的诉说,一边想办法判断和决定用何种方法来训练和辅导病人,能够更有效的解决病人的心理问题。

我曾经在辅导一个心理恐惧病人时用过折中法,就是对他所讲的家庭问题,一半予以肯定,一半予以否定,然后将肯定的放在一边,对于否定的方面,用他能够理解的心理困扰,对他采用一些使他感受到差异性非常大的关键因素,使他慢慢理解到自己做错的原因,来改变自己对问题原有的看法。

其实折中法是对心理学医生的一种考验,需要有经验和有效的心理辅导技能,才能不断的提升对病人的思想问题的解决,这是至关重要的。

5. How to use the eclectic approach effectively

Besides strictly adhering to a specific theory, psychologists and psychiatrists also need to learn how to find a more direct and effective approach to solving problems found in various cases. In psychology, this is called the eclectic approach.

Psychotherapists can follow a specific theory in psychology to counsel the patient. However, at certain times, the patient will manifest thought processes from different angles. For example, a patient with depression will usually also have panic disorder, and sometimes a patient with phobia may also have autism. Treatment that follows an objective report and evaluation may not be effective, so different methods should be employed to treat patients with depression and phobia.

As there are many psychotherapists who do not have confidence and a sense of ‘gut feeling’ toward a treatment’s effect, they have difficulty developing an accurate and guiding evaluation of their patients. In dealing with the patients’ psychological distress, they also have difficulty directly gaining evidence of a treatment’s effectiveness. Hence, the psychotherapists themselves have a gap in their approach to treatment. The eclectic approach is the process of listening to the patient while determining which approach to follow while counselling the patient. This can help the patient resolve their psychological distress more effectively.

I once counselled a patient with phobia using the eclectic approach. While listening to his family problems, half the time I expressed my acknowledgement, and the other half I expressed my scepticism. After that, I mentally placed the part which I agreed with to one side. As for the part which I was sceptical of, I employed methods which caused the patient to see a huge disparity, allowing him to understand where he had done wrong and to change his perception of the problem.

The eclectic approach is actually a challenge for psychotherapists. A professional needs experience and effective counselling skills to be able to continuously upgrade their problem-solving skills for their patients. Such is the most crucial element of the profession.